The discovery of society has brought new developments to the beauty and cosmetics industry. Skin care products have evolved from chemical cosmetology to plant cosmetology to bio-cosmetics and gene cosmetology. The main components of biological skin care products are biologically active polypeptides. Most of them are cell growth factors. They contain very little in the body, but they have extremely high biological activity. They exert biological regulation on a variety of cell physiological functions and metabolic activities, and directly or indirectly affect a variety of The growth, division, differentiation, proliferation, and migration of type cells play an important role in wound healing and healing in skin care, orthopedic surgery, burn ulcers, and various skin diseases.
1. Biological effects of biologically active peptides Various biologically active peptides added to skin care products are combined with specific receptors present on target cells, and their main biological effects are chemotaxis-induced inflammation. Cells; stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of target cells; promote the synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix such as collagen by target cells. The role of biologically active peptides in embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and wound healing goes far beyond promoting cell division and differentiation, material synthesis and secretion, immune responses, and even plays an important role in the inhibition of cell growth.
Bioactive peptides can regulate the formation, development, and metabolism of T cells, B cells, histiocytes, Langerhans cells, and dermal dendrites, and affect their migration and growth rate. It also stimulates secretion of cytokines, lymphokines, serum proteins, extracellular proteins, and matrix polysaccharides in connective tissue, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages. During embryonic development, active peptides are involved in the regulation of tissue and organ formation by regulating the activity of the same or different types of cells; for mature tissue, organ damage caused by trauma, impaired function, or due to lack of growth promoting polypeptides. The cell viability is weakened and senescent, and active peptides have significant repair and reconstruction functions.
2. Several biologically active peptides related to skin Up to now, there have been dozens of biologically active peptides found in the study, which are often added to skin care products. The main ones related to skin care and skin soft tissue injury repair are:
(1) Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). IGF-1, together with other cytokines, affects the growth and development of bone and cartilage. IGF-1 plays a chemotactic role on endothelial cells and stimulates DNA synthesis. It can accelerate the division and proliferation of different types of cells, increase the synthesis of proteins and steroids, and play a role in wound repair and nerve cell reconstruction.
(2) Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which includes both acidic (aFGF) and basic (bFGF), a multifunctional cytokine derived from mesoderm and neuroectoderm, is a highly active mitogen. It has a mitogenic effect on vascular endothelial cells, fibroblasts, myoblasts, osteoblasts, etc., and causes macrophages, mesenchymal cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts through its chemotaxis and promoting cell migration. It is concentrated on the wound site and initiates the wound healing process; it promotes the formation of new blood vessels and promotes the release of collagenase and plasmin activator from cells. After binding to heparin, the biological activity of FGF is increased 20- to 100-fold.
(3) Epidermal growth factor (EGF). As a mitogenic source, EGF can promote cell division and differentiation and promote epidermal wound healing. EGF can promote the transport of small molecules such as K+, deoxyglucose and α-aminoisobutyric acid, increase the synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix, and promote the synthesis of RNA, DNA and protein.
(4) Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). During embryonic development, TGF-beta regulates the proliferation and differentiation of cells, and it promotes the formation of collagen fibers, reticular fibers, and elastic fibers, and regulates the synthesis and secretion of collagen, fibronectin, proteoglycans, and mucopolysaccharides. TGF-β is involved in the chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation of a variety of cells and is involved in post-traumatic epithelial regeneration, interstitial hyperplasia, and angiogenesis.
(5) Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). PDGF is an activator of mesenchymal cells involved in tissue remodeling during wound healing and osteogenesis. PDGF causes connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts, arterial smooth muscle cells, synoviocytes, and glial cells to accumulate at the site of injury, where it differentiates and proliferates; at the same time, it inhibits the lysis of connective tissue cells and prolongs the survival time of the connective tissue. Stimulates the growth of connective tissue cells and promotes healing and healing after tissue damage. PDGF and IGF synergistically increase epidermal and endothelial regeneration.
(6) Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). KGF is purified from a fibroblast medium and is the most important factor in the formation of keratinocytes and hair follicles, stimulating DNA synthesis and promoting the maintenance of human keratinocyte, epidermal and epithelial cell growth. Disorders of KGF can lead to epidermal atrophy, abnormal hair follicles, and damaged dermis. KGF plays an important role in the regulation of epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing.
3. The skin care mechanism of biologically active peptides
Delaying skin aging: Skin aging is the external manifestation of human aging and is the result of a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. With age, the aging of the skin becomes more and more obvious. The main manifestations are dry skin, rough, wrinkles, dullness, inelasticity, paleness and relaxation, and even skin atrophy, wrinkles, and age spots. Sunlight or other environmental factors can also cause skin aging and damage and reduce skin activity. Bioactive peptides are the best active ingredients for skin care. They can control or regulate the process of skin aging, protect damaged skin, delay skin aging, and have important significance in maintaining the structure and function of normal skin and maintaining normal physiological activities and metabolism of the body. The biologically active peptides are added to face creams, gels, serums, or lotions in the form of tiny particles or through special delivery systems (liposomes, entrapped liposomes, and microspheres), which play an important role in molecular biology of aging skin. Learn function. The role of biologically active peptides is: 1 at the epidermal level, affect the activity of keratinocytes and growth factors, stimulate keratinocyte migration and epithelialization, stimulate epidermal cell differentiation and correction, and strongly promote epidermal repair and healing; 2 in the dermis level Stimulating fibroblast activity, enhancing extracellular matrix contraction and structure, providing skin nutrients to promote skin wound healing and functional regeneration; 3 enhancing the environmental intrusion, ultraviolet rays, pollutants, irritants, sensitizers at the level of the skin as a whole And the resistance of inflammatory cells, to consolidate and enhance the tensor muscles of the skin, enhance skin elasticity, stimulate scar tissue discoloration, reduce scar formation, and delay skin aging.
Promote wound repair: due to surgical (such as three lines, plastic, grinding), accidents (such as burns, trauma) and the environment (such as ultraviolet radiation) and other factors caused by skin damage, biologically active peptides can speed up the wound repair rate, improve healing quality. Bioactive peptides accelerate the proliferation and differentiation of damaged basal cells, and can achieve the purpose of rapidly closing the wound surface. It also has the effects of inducing the formation of capillary germs, promoting the growth of granulation tissue, and promoting the regeneration of damaged skin. The mechanism of biologically active peptides accelerating the repair of damaged wounds on the skin mainly involves biologically active peptides involved in inflammation, affecting cell cycle transformation, promoting RNA and DNA synthesis, and inducing new blood vessel formation and extracellular matrix deposition. Studies have shown that biologically active peptides are added to skin care products at a certain effective concentration after stable structural repair or special protective treatment, and will produce protection and repair in the following three aspects: 1 Bioactive peptides as chemokines, Inflammation cells and tissues are repaired to the injured area to invade the microorganisms by phagocytosis and impurities, and they function to purify the wound surface, creating conditions for the sterilization of the wounded skin and the repair of the wound; 2 The biologically active peptides can also be used as a mitogenic factor. It plays a role in the proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and the like at wound sites, and lays the foundation for collagen synthesis, angiogenesis, and re-epithelialization. Biologically active peptides can also accelerate the process of wound repair by affecting the mitotic activity of cells and promoting the transition of cell cycle; 3 Upregulate the activity of biologically active polypeptide receptors on tissue repair cells through competitive action, accelerate the transmission of cell signals, protect and prevent The skin is damaged due to various reasons.
4. Experimental research and clinical application The addition of biologically active peptides to the culture medium of epithelial cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and keratocytes in vitro can significantly accelerate the division and proliferation of these cells. Through animal models of different classes and grades such as mice, rats, rabbits and minipigs, it was observed that active polypeptides such as FGF have significant induction of angiogenesis, promote wound healing, accelerate wound healing, and reduce scar formation. In the wound, the formation of granulation tissue increased, thickened, collagen deposition increased, and the rate of epithelialization accelerated, the maturation of fibroblasts increased and the number increased, the capillary embryo model increased, the local circulation improved, and the healing time was shortened. Another experiment confirmed that topical application of emulsions containing biologically active peptides can stimulate epidermal repair and have a significant effect on the reduction of stratum corneum hyperplasia. Due to environmental factors (such as UV radiation) induced excessive secretion of human keratinocytes IL-1a and PGE2, biologically active peptides can play a protective role, making it reduce by 90%, indicating that biologically active peptides can protect and enhance the skin's resistance to UV rays. force. The skin care effects of biologically active peptides have been demonstrated in vivo through human skin tests. After 3 weeks of active peptides with a mass fraction of 0.5%, the cell migration index increased, the skin compressibility decreased, and the skin thickened, and the glucocorticoid-induced skin damage was reversed. Another double-blind trial also confirmed that 7 days after topical application of a skin care cream with a mass fraction of 0. 10% of cytokines, induced proliferation of fibroblasts by 29%, indicating a protective effect on the skin. Certain specific biologically active peptides have significant effects in experimental and clinical applications of skin diseases such as burns, diabetes or venous ulcers, psoriasis or dermatitis. Treating superficial scars after facial grinding with active peptides, shortening the healing time, and smoothing the wounds after healing; treating chloasma, reducing pigmentation, enhancing and maintaining the effect of removing freckle; better effect; promoting wound surface dermis, Promote cosmetic repair after wound repair.
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